Updated: December 22, 2020

CPM-3V Knife Steel Overview


Perfect knife steels are like opinions…

You were expecting a joke, right? Well, the fact is, there is no “perfect” knife steel. It all depends on what your intended use for the knife will be, where you expect to use the knife, and the conditions in which it will be used. Many throw around the term “perfect,” and CPM-3V is no different. In some situations, 3V may actually be perfect for your needs. But that perfection comes with a hefty price tag and the understanding that because this is NOT a stainless steel, you will be required to take care of it as such.

CPM-3V steel is bred for toughness. It is an American powdered steel made by Crucible Industries in Syracuse, New York. It is used in situations where tool breakage by impact is a concern. The composition of CPM-3V is:

0.80% Carbon
7.50% Chromium
2.75% Vanadium
1.30% Molybdenum

CPM-3V is one of the newer “super steel’s” that utilize the Crucible Particle Metallurgy process. This is designed to provide maximum resistance to breakage and chipping in a highly wear-resistant and shock-resistant steel. The recommended heat-treatment is to Austenitize at 1950F (1065°C), hold 30/45 minutes then temper 3 times at 1000°F (540°C).


HRC steel chart

CPM-3V Falls somewhere around 58 – 60 on this Rockwell Hardness Scale. Anything at 60 or above is entering the category of a harder, carbon-rich steel that is found in higher priced, higher quality knives. This chart shows the spectrum of soft to hard steels used in knife-making

Typically used for punches and dies, shearing blades, and stamping tools, CPM-3V is a good choice for industrial operations where toughness is the main concern. It is the toughest of all of the tool steels and is intended to be hardened to a 58-60 HRC. When compared with A2 tool steel, CPM-3V will hold an edge better, but sharpening can be a chore, often requiring a harder abrasive with which to sharpen it. Knives made with 3V will often be factory sharpened at a 150 grit finish rather than the standard 600 grit, resulting in a more satin appearance. A2 will be easier to bring back to sharp in the field, but will not resist patina as well.
One area where a 3V knife would have an advantage would be in bushcraft applications where batoning and chopping would be frequent. It is pretty resistant to corrosion or chipping even though it is not a stainless steel. Without proper care, it will, like all higher carbon steels, oxidize over time. There are several coatings that can improve corrosion-resistance such as DLC and PVD.

Favorites using CPM-3V

One of my favorite knives available in 3V steel is the Benchmade Bailout 537 AXIS Lock Knife (Amazon).  Benchmade is one heck of a brand and truth be told, I’ve never read a credible negative critique on any knife from this solid company.   The Bailout Axis Lock is a folder that fits nicely into a pocket and weighs just over 2 ounces.  It features a “Grivory” handle (that’s just a proprietary hard polymer composite) which you can read about HERE.

The CPM-3V gives it that tough cutting edge that takes a long time to get dull.   A reinforced titanium lock bar gives the Bailout a dependable locking system.  The Tanto blade is standard and of course, a lanyard and reversible pocket clip are also standard with the Bailout.

As with all carbon steel blades, you absolutely must keep the blade coated in mineral or gun oil when it is not in use. You can also try Vaseline petroleum jelly – yes, I’m totally serious!

Check Availability and Cost:  BladeHQ  Amazon 


CPM-3V certainly has its place in the knife world. One of the major drawbacks that it shares with many of the “neo-steels” available today is the cost. If you’re someone looking for a field knife that you can throw in the truck and forget about until your next outdoor adventure, 3V is probably not for you. But if you are a person who painstakingly cleans, oils, and hones your knives (as you should) each time you get back home, CPM-3V will give you a lifetime of service from a quality, tough as nails carbon steel.


Jeremy Dodd
Latest posts by Jeremy Dodd (see all)
  • Comments

  • Christopher W Smith says:

    CPM S90V and CPM 3V are my favorite steels and this site has awesome information. A link to this site needs to be placed in bladeforums.com

  • Wesley Boston says:

    Why does the steel industry not do the following:

    Since A2 is such a good baseline steel – – why not
    develop a ‘neo-A2’ by hammer forging it before
    letting it slowly air cool?

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